According to UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children (known as Palermo Protocol adopted in November 2000) defines trafficking as

... the recruitment, transportation , transfer and harboring receipt of person by means of the treat or use of  force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of the person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or service, slavery or practice similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organ.


Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery in which traffickers use force, fraud, or coercion to control victims for the purpose of engaging in commercial sex acts or labor services against his/her will. This heinous act occurs in every corner of the globe. In India, it continues to be a serious problem. In 2016, 18.3 million people were considered to be in in modern slavery in India per the Global Slavery Index. This index also reflects forced sexual exploitation and children in modern slavery. Men, women, and children are frequently trafficked in India for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and forced/bonded labor, domestic servitude, and forced marriage


The Power Control Wheel

There are several methods through which traffickers engage in fraud or force or coerce the victim. Based on the Domestic Abuse Intervention Project's Duluth Model, the power control wheel outlines the different ways in which forced labor and sex trafficking situations can occur

The Action-Means-Purpose ("AMP") model best explains the basic process underlying human trafficking. Human trafficking occurs when the trafficker takes an Action, and then applies the Means of force, coercion or abduction for the Purpose of engaging the victim in commercial sex acts or forced labor. 

Underlying Actions by traffickers

  • Marriage

  • Transport

  • Induce

  • Tempting

  • Provide

  • Obtain

by Means of

  • Fraud

  • Force

  • Coercion

to serve Purpose of traffickers

Commercial Sex

(Sex Trafficking)



(Labor Trafficking)


Illegal Organ Transport

Victims of Human Trafficking

According to Enrile, anyone can fall victim to human trafficking. However, vulnerable populations who have little social and legal protection are the most at risk. Prime targets of human trafficking involves the following groups of people: landless households, agriculture laborers, low paid informal sector workers, marginal and seasonal workers. Affected social class includes: illegal migrant laborers, illiterate, and drop out adolescents, deserted and widowed women, dowry affected women, and abandoned children.

According to the U.S. Department of State, though anyone could be a victim of trafficking and display no warning signs, some common indicators may exist. Red flags may include living with an employer, living in a cramped space with multiple other people, being unable to speak to another person privately, displaying signs of physical abuse, behaving submissively or fearfully, receiving extremely low or no pay for work, speaking in a manner that appears scripted and rehearsed, and prostituting while underage.


Aided by government officials and a web of informers on the ground, we at PSS aim to strike at the root of the problem by intervening at the place and time of the crime in order to save the human trafficking victims in India. PSS takes the victim under their custody and strives to take legal action against the perpetrators. Since we intervene at the time of the crime, we are able to collect immensely valuable data on traffickers and their networks. Through our data analysis and investigations, we have helped authorities arrest over 35 people accused of the crime.

In addition, PSS, driven by the inspiration that "everyone deserves a second chance at happiness", also works to restore the livelihood of the victims by providing them with relief and empowering them with opportunities. PSS focuses on developing the potential of victims of human trafficking to drive sustainable changes and bring security and stability to their life. PSS strategically emphasizes on quality nutrition along with proper healthcare services, providing education and nourishing their skills, and sustainable livelihood opportunities for their bright future. PSS provides the victims with mental health support, and when they are ready, with quality education and opportunities to develop their professional skills.

There are more slaves today than at any time in history. We have to stop all forms of human trafficking.​

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